The era in which we are living is known as the ‘era of machines.’ Machines are the dominant and integrated part of our lives and our dependency on machines is increasing day-by-day. Everything around us is surrounded by the applications of artificial intelligence. Devices such as air conditioners, cameras, video games, medical equipment, and many more are the functions of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence can be defined as the branch of computer science that aims to create a system to imitate and react like a human. It has inbuilt capabilities to think, react, solve problems learn, and make various decisions. In today’s era, the world is witnessing the progress of robotic cars with high-performance capabilities such as traffic control, speed control, and others. The human-like characteristics of artificially intelligent devices have considerably increased the dependency of humans on the technologies. In addition to this, the ability to perform and processing a huge amount of data by computers are all part of artificial intelligence. It has considerably increased the level of threat of extracting and analyzing the data in an illegitimate way (Shabbir and Anwer, 2018).
On the other hand, human intelligence can be defined as the ability to create an abstract treatment of data for achieving operational efficiency. Human intelligence is the quality of the brain that learns, adapts, acquires knowledge, and solves problems (Srivastava, 2020). As per the analysis of the research paper of Lexcellent (2019), there are many types of human intelligence. For example, there are language intelligence, spatial intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, naturalistic intelligence, and many more.
The major problem that is emerging in the current date is whether artificial intelligence will overcome the power of human intelligence. Since there is no doubt that till now humans are known to be one of the intelligent species on the earth. However, the rapid evolution of human-made artificial intelligence is imposing a lot of doubts and concerns that need a powerful discussion. Therefore, the current objective of the essay is to investigate whether artificial intelligence will really take over human intelligence in the coming future or it will have some other implications. The study of Lexcellent (2019) suggests that since 1995, there is a considerable decline in the overall IQ of humans in the developed countries. The IQ test is a measurement parameter of human intelligence. However, the sudden decline in the IQ level of people in the developed countries is imposing a lot of questions in our minds. The question of whether the increased dependency on humans on artificial intelligence is the real reason behind the declined rate of IQ among humans. This needs a serious discussion.
According to online essay help experts the structure of the present essay will consist of three main themes. The first theme of the essay will discuss the meaning of intelligence with special regard to humans and machines. The next theme of the essay will focus on two different perspectives of artificial intelligence. The debate will revolve around the positive and negative impacts of artificial intelligence in the day-to-day lives of humans. In the last theme, the essay will discuss whether artificial intelligence will be able to surpass the level of human intelligence or not. Towards the end, it will sum up the major takeaways of the overall discussions.
Intelligence And Its Connection With Human And Machine
The term intelligence refers to the capability to acquire and apply different knowledge, learning, skill at a certain point in time to solve a particular problem. In addition to this, intelligence is also linked with the ability to solve, reason, and learning various situations. Furthermore, it is also integrated with several cognitive functions such as language, planning, perspectives, and others. The study of intelligence is not a new phenomenon; it is a matter of debate since the creation of human beings on the earth. However, it has received much attention in the past few years due to the evolution of artificial intelligence. As discussed above, intelligence is now seen from two different perspectives- human intelligence and artificial intelligence. Both types of intelligence are different from each other. To date, artificial intelligence is partially developed as compared to human intelligence. It may fail at some points such as thinking and making logical decisions. It lacks the advanced ability of learning by its own capabilities and potentialities. Artificial intelligence programs or robots are specifically developed for a particular purpose to perform a particular task whereas human intelligence is a dynamic and unbeatable construction of nature that contains an inbuilt ability to perform multiple tasks at a particular time. There is no doubt that artificial intelligence is used to develop various robots that are characterized by human intellectual power. The advancement of technology has lead to the development and evolution of robot that is trending exponentially in the current world scenario. It has gained tremendous recognition in the field of industries, schools, military, music, and many more (Shabbir and Anwer, 2018).
to know more about artificial intelligence, you can also take assistance from SourceEssay assignment writer.
The Optimistic And Pessimistic Perspectives Of Artificial Intelligence
In addition to this, there is growing debate among the experts about the optimistic perspective of artificial intelligence and the pessimistic perspective of artificial intelligence. Many experts believe that artificial intelligence has a significant role in reducing the efforts of humans to a great extent. For example, many focused on the optimistic perspectives of artificial intelligence is related to health care, its application in diagnosing patients, its contribution to the public health program, and many more. Others believe that it has a great positive impact on the formal and informal education system (Anderson and Raine, 2018). On the other hand, the pessimistic perspective of artificial intelligence imposes that it has threatened the autonomy, agency, and capabilities of a human. Moreover, another concern regarding this is that artificial intelligence is largely responsible for the loss of jobs and that will may create massive unemployment and social unrest in the coming future. With more and more advancements and the evolution of artificial intelligence, some experts express the fear of steady and inevitable takeover of large sectors workforce (Liang et al, 2019). It will eventually create a myriad of severe challenges and problems in front of the world leaders. Thus, there is no obligation to state that the uprising of artificial intelligence and its application in the multiple sectors of our lives can be an effect of dystopian fiction. If not an effect, it has got much inspiration and influence from dystopian fiction or science fiction. Many pessimists believe that artificial intelligence will slowly, surely, and ruthlessly take over the human in the future, as it happened in most of the science fiction (Benett, 2020). Moreover, another concern regarding
The former perspective or the optimistic perspective of artificial intelligence implicates that artificial intelligence is greatly influencing the role of humans in performing multiple tasks. It has a significant role in language understanding, for example, it can understand a speech, translate a language, retrieve information, answer any question, etc. In addition, artificial intelligence has also the ability to adapt behavior through past experience. Accordingly, it can develop rules by concerning the situation based on its experience. The third advantage of artificial intelligence is related to problem-solving ability. Also, it plans to give a solution by determining when new information is required and how to obtain that information. Furthermore, artificial intelligence has also the ability to seek different perceptions for different situations. Another ability of artificial intelligence is modeling. It can develop an internal representation and some sets of rules which can further used for predicting behavior and relations. Apart from all these, robots are the combination of all the abilities of artificial intelligence that provide immense support to humans in almost all aspects of their lives (Pannu, 2015).
The abilities of artificial intelligence have many applications that considerably help humans to ease their task. For example, in the field of transportation, humans face several challenges in understanding the relationship between the characteristics of the transportation system. The advancement of the artificial system has a deep and positive impact in this field. It has emerged as one of the most vital solutions for such a complex system. For example, in the traditional method of controlling traffics on roads, humans find it difficult to detect future traffic conditions. However, the emergence of artificial intelligence ad its integration in transporting systems has revolutionized the overall condition of traffic. It can transform the traffic sensors on the road into a smart agent. This can automatically detect accidents and predicts the future condition of the traffic. Along with this, it also ensures the safety of humans and animals on roads. Moreover, artificial intelligence is also used for planning, designing, and controlling transportation network structures (Abduljabbar et al, 2019). In addition to this, another study implicates that artificial intelligence is used for developing smart parking management systems by monitoring parking spaces with the help of an ultrasound sensor. It can also provide real-time travel and traffic information to the traffic control department of the particular area (Agarwal et al, 2015). Thus, there is no denial of the fact that artificial intelligence is supporting humans to a great extent in the field of transportation management.
Education is the primary and fundamental objective of every human being. In this field also, artificial intelligence is showcasing its abilities and capabilities to enhance the learning system. It is a true fact that it is impossible to replace a human tutor or educator but artificial intelligence provides many advantages to learners and educators to a great extent. In the process of learning, feedback is one of the most important responsibilities of any educator. However, it can become quite hectic for the tutor to provide effective and constructive feedback to every student of the university. Therefore, using the features of artificial intelligence in enhancing the communication between students and educators can be viewed as an advantageous achievement of humans. Apart from this, artificial intelligence is also used to assess and track the performance of the students. Besides this, it also helps the teachers to avoid problems related to teaching methods. This enables the student of every intelligence level to learn different knowledge effectively (Chassignol et al, 2018). Furthermore, Kuprenko (2020) states that artificial intelligence mobile apps help students to improve their weak sides by providing suitable tasks and courses to them. Thus, the above analysis implicates that artificial intelligence does not completely replace the importance of human tutors but it acts as a supporting system to the learners and teachers.
Artificial intelligence is developed by humans as a tool to reduce their efforts, energy, and time. Another example of this is its usage in the field of medical and health care sector. It is an irresistible fact that doctors will be replaced by the artificially intelligent machine; however, it definitely assists the doctors to make better judgments and clinical decisions. It has become quite difficult for healthcare workers to manage a large amount of medical and clinical data and information (Jiang et al, 2017). Therefore, artificial intelligence-based technologies offer tremendous benefits to them in performing various tasks related to diagnosis, testing, etc. (Davenport and Kalakota, 2019)It is used considerably for diagnosing diabetic patients (Yu et al, 2017). It also predicts disease and its outcome and effectiveness of treatment (Noorbakhsh-Sabet et al, 2019).
Having discussed some of the important implications of artificial intelligence on the day-to-day lives of humans, many experts showed some of the real challenges and issues of using artificial intelligence (Anderson and Raine, 2018). However, one cannot brand them as pessimistic thinkers rather they can be called as a practical thinker. The experts who are expressing their serious concerns regarding the dependency of humans on artificial intelligence are the actual thinkers who are showcasing another side of the same coin of artificial intelligence. Concerning the fact that artificial intelligence is really supporting humans in their professional works but it is somewhat penetrating into their personal lives with a negative impact.
One of the most critical aspects of artificial intelligence is their inter-connecting IOT device that imposes severe threat in front of humans. Lack of a strong security system to protect and secure the personal data and information of certain organizations or human can create several legal and ethical issues (Soroka and Kurkova, 2019).
Besides this, human loss of control over the powerful artificial intelligence system is another matter of concern that is continuously raised by several experts and scientists (Fast and Horvitz, 2017). It has been discussed that how artificial intelligence has become an integral and inevitable part of human lives and avoiding it or imagining life without artificial intelligence is not possible now because the human race has now completely indulged in it. The report of Murphy (2017) states that scientists have accepted the fact they are baffled by the mechanical intelligence, which has been created by them only. The writer of this article shows deep concern about this that it could be a dark sign of times to come.
Another important concern raised by a practical group of thinkers about artificial intelligence is data abuse. Data can be abused by any unethical hands in order to gain power and control. The study of Ahesh (2019) suggests that artificial intelligence is all about data and it is analyzed and understood through cyber-security solutions. Now the major matter of concern unethical hackers or cyber-criminals is using artificial intelligence to make more sophisticated cyber-attacks. With the help of artificial intelligence, they can extract personal information or personally identifiable information in order to exploit others or to fulfill their evil demands. Moreover, the protection of the personal data of clients and customers is one of the primary objectives of any business organization. On the other side, these business organizations are also using artificial intelligence to make their business operations more advanced and rapid. Therefore, unprotected data or leakage of those data and information of clients and customers may arise legal, ethical, and privacy issues for the company (Ovaska, 2020).
The practical thinkers have also highlighted the issue of job loss of several workers due to the integration of artificial intelligence. If artificial intelligence will take over the jobs then it will widen the economic divides, hence, as a consequence, it will lead to social injustice and unrest. As per the analysis of the research paper of Gries and Naudé (2018), it has been predicted that a significant percentage of the human workforce will be replaced by the automation of jobs and tasks. The study implicates that approximately forty-seven of the jobs of the USA will be automated in the coming ten to twenty years (Frey et al, 2016).
Apart from all these serious implications of artificial intelligence in society, there are other dangerous threats linked to it that are hovering over the peaceful existence of humans. The prediction of the erosion of traditional socio-political structures of the world as well as the possibility of massive loss of human lives can be the serious consequence of artificial intelligence. The integration of artificial intelligence in military application and the use of weaponized information will lead to drastic circumstances.
It has become clear that the emergence of artificial intelligence is very beneficial as well as very dangerous for humans. Now the question is whether artificial intelligence will surpass the level of human intelligence in the coming future or it has some other impacts on humans. This needs detailed evaluation and analysis.
Will Artificial Intelligence Surpass The Level Of Human Intelligence?
The use of artificial intelligence in our everyday lives and its added layer of threats have created a sense of fear among humans. However, it is important to understand that artificial intelligence is the product of human intelligence; it is a creation of a creator. Like humans are the creation of nature and no human intelligence has been able to understand the entire meaning of nature, similarly, artificial intelligence is the creation of humans and it will not surpass the intelligence level of humans. Therefore, artificial intelligence will not be able to replace human intelligence (Bartholomew, 2020). It can be justified by three reasons. The first reason for this is that human intelligence is the product of millions of years of learning, evolving, and refining. The cognitive skills of humans have been evolved in such a way that it can perform multiple tasks, respond correctly to a new circumstance, and manage change effectively. The second reason is that human intelligence is consists of interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. This is absent in artificial intelligence. Sense of emotions, developing rightful perceptions, making right judgment cannot be imitated by even intelligent machines (Benett, 2020). Thirdly, artificial intelligence requires several times of research and development programs to mimic the intelligence level of humans completely, which is not possible as it lacks emotions and self-awareness ability.
A simple example can be taken from the field of business and management. In the context of human resource management, artificial intelligence is not able to inculcate the skills of a manager such as sympathy, emotional intelligence, leadership quality, and many more. Thus, it has many limitations such as lack of emotional intelligence, requires supervision, vulnerability to cyber attacks, high maintenance and cost requirements, etc. (Khanam et al, 2020).
Thus, to sum up, the present essay has successfully evaluated its intention of understanding the superiority of human intelligence against artificial intelligence. It has discussed the meaning of intelligence from two different perspectives of human and machine. In addition, it has also minutely examined two different thoughts of optimistic thinkers and practical thinkers, which has further helped to understand that how artificial intelligence is full of limitations and wrong attributes. Despite the fact that immature use of artificial intelligence will lead to severe consequences and it is an entirely different topic for debate, however, it needs to be understood that artificial intelligence is still at its first stage of development. Therefore, the overall discussions can be summarized in a single line that artificial intelligence is developed by humans for assisting them and not to control and dominate them. Hence, it will not be able to take over human intelligence.
Abduljabbar, R., Dia, H., Liyanage, S., & Bagloee, S. A. (2019). Applications of artificial intelligence in transport: An overview. Sustainability, 11(1), 189.
Agarwal, P. K., Gurjar, J., Agarwal, A. K., & Birla, R. (2015). Application of artificial intelligence for development of intelligent transport system in smart cities. Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 1(1), 20-30.
Ahesh, A. (2019). Artificial intelligence-its use and misuse. Cyber-security Products. Retrieved from: https://www.seqrite.com/blog/artificial-intelligence-its-use-and-misuse/
Anderson, J., & Raine, L. (2018). Artificial Intelligence and the Future of Humans. Internet and Technology. Retrieved from: https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/12/10/artificial-intelligence-and-the-future-of-humans/
Bartholomew, B. Y. (2020). Why AI Will Never Surpass Human Intelligence. Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research, 11(3).
Benett, J. (2020). The Matter of AI Takeover: Will Artificial Intelligence Replace Human Beings? Retrieved from: https://towardsdatascience.com/the-matter-of-ai-takeover-will-artificial-intelligence-replace-human-beings-79d2c788f358
Chassignol, M., Khoroshavin, A., Klimova, A., & Bilyatdinova, A. (2018). Artificial Intelligence trends in education: a narrative overview. Procedia Computer Science, 136, 16-24.
Davenport, T., & Kalakota, R. (2019). The potential for artificial intelligence in healthcare. Future healthcare journal, 6(2), 94.
Fast, E., & Horvitz, E. (2017, February). Long-term trends in the public perception of artificial intelligence. In Proceedings of the AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence (Vol. 31, No. 1).
Frey, C. B., Osborne, M., Holmes, C., Rahbari, E., Garlick, R., Friedlander, G., ... & Chalif, P. (2016). Technology at work v2. 0: The future is not what it used to be. CityGroup and University of Oxford, 338.
Gries, T., & Naudé, W. (2018). Artificial intelligence, jobs, inequality and productivity: Does aggregate demand matter?
Jiang, F., Jiang, Y., Zhi, H., Dong, Y., Li, H., Ma, S., ... & Wang, Y. (2017). Artificial intelligence in healthcare: past, present and future. Stroke and vascular neurology, 2(4).
Khanam, S., Tanweer, S., & Khalid, S. (2020). Artificial Intelligence Surpassing Human Intelligence: Factual or Hoax. The Computer Journal.
Lexcellent, C. (2019). Artificial Intelligence According to Laurent Alexandre. In Artificial Intelligence versus Human Intelligence (pp. 23-27). Springer, Cham.
Liang, J., Ramanauskas, B., Kurenkov, A. (2019) “Job Loss Due To AI — How Bad Is It Going To Be?”Skynet Today. Retrieved from: https://www.skynettoday.com/editorials/ai-automation-job-loss
Murphy, M. (2017). Humanity is already starting to lose control of AI. New York Post. Retrieved from: https://nypost.com/2017/04/11/humanity-is-already-starting-to-lose-control-of-ai/
Noorbakhsh-Sabet, N., Zand, R., Zhang, Y., & Abedi, V. (2019). Artificial intelligence transforms the future of health care. The American journal of medicine, 132(7), 795-801.
Ovaska, S. (2020). Data privacy risks to consider when using AI. Retrieved from: https://www.fm-magazine.com/issues/2020/feb/data-privacy-risks-when-using-artificial-intelligence.html
Pannu, A. (2015). Artificial intelligence and its application in different areas. Artificial Intelligence, 4(10), 79-84.
Shabbir, J., & Anwer, T. (2018). Artificial intelligence and its role in near future. arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.01396.
Soroka, L., & Kurkova, K. (2019). Artificial intelligence and space technologies: legal, ethical and technological issues. Advanced Space Law, 3(1), 131-139.
Srivastava, S. (2020). Will Artificial Intelligence grow beyond Human Intelligence? Retrieved from: https://www.analyticsinsight.net/will-artificial-intelligence-grow-beyond-human-intelligence/#:~:text=However%2C%20despite%20significant%20advancements%2C%20AI,human%20intelligence%20in%20most%20aspects.&text=human%20intelligence%2C%20the%20given%20wisdom,not%20replace%20them%2C%20anytime%20soon.
Yu, K. H., Beam, A. L., & Kohane, I. S. (2018). Artificial intelligence in healthcare. Nature biomedical engineering, 2(10), 719-731.